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Objective reasons are caused by the divergence in the language systems and speech models. PART V. The second half of the 20th century has seen the in-depth study of translation, which is sometimes called Theory of Translation, Science of Translation, Translation Linguistics, or even Translatology.
Works by V. Komissarov, A. Shveitser, A. Fedorov and many others confirmed the status of translation studies as a discipline of its own even in the s. We should also differentiate the terms translating and rendering. When we translate, we express in another language not only what is conveyed in the source text but also how it is done. In rendering, we only convey the ideas the what of the source text.
Several approaches are used for defining translation. Language system is the part of semiotics dealing with sign systems. Therefore, semiotic theories may be applied to language functioning.
According to the semiotic approach, translation is language code switching. When translating, we switch from one language to another one. When done on synchronic level, this kind of code switching is called a paraphrase.
We often deal with paraphrasing when trying to explain or define things. For example, to explain the meaning of the phrase I am not much of a cook, we can paraphrase it by I do not like to cook, or I do not cook well. In the theory of translation, this type of code switching is called a. This type of code switching is translation proper, the object of Translation Studies. Other linguists adhere to the semiotic approach to translation.
We communicate to transfer information from one person to another. Translation helps people communicate if they speak different languages. Thus, translation is a two-facet phenomenon: on the one hand, it is the process of transferring information; on the other hand, it is the result of this process.
By the result is meant a new text created in translating. The communicative situation consists of several elements:. TEXT writer an author makes a meaningful utterance called the text and addresses it to the listener, reader, or receptor, who understands the purport of the text and reacts to it. The translation situation doubles the elements of communication. The target text is the end-product, the Source of information Receptor Addressee translated text. The form of the target text is new but the purport and the content are very close to the original.
The translated text is attributed to the author speaking another language and this text is used everywhere as if it were the original. Thus translation unifies two different language speech acts in one communicative situation. It can be defined as a special type of communication intended to convey information between the participants speaking two different languages. Nida and C. Inseparability of form and meaning. A translator always bears in mind a stardard language of the target text, for, as W.
Social functions. Translation does not exist outside of society. It appeared in society when communities began to trade and exchange ideas.
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